Cataract

Cataract


Cataract is the cloudiness of the eye’s lens which affects the normal vision. It is a surgery which is done to restore the clear vision, by removing the clouded lens of the eye. This is replaced by an artificial lens called ‘intra ocular lens’, made from plastic, acrylic or silicone, and functions in the same way as the natural lens of the eye.

 

Why is it needed?

Cataract surgery is advises to people who experience vision problem due to developing cataract.

 

Causes

  • Age – usually, people after 40 develop cataract
  • Eye Trauma
  • Ultraviolet light exposure
  • Systemic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes
  • Extreme nearsightedness, chronic inflammation, eye surgeries
  • Congential cataracts

Symptoms

  • Blurry or cloudy vision
  • Colors appear faded
  • Glare from lamps, headlights and sunlight might appear extremely bright
  • Night vision poor
  • Multiple or double images seen in one eye
  • Frequent changes of prescription of contact lenses or eyeglasses

 

Facts and Figures

  • Cataract lead to vision loss in adults over 55 worldwide
  • Half of world population develops cataract at age 65, and by 75, almost all have a cataract
  • According to WHO, in 1997, cataracts were the reason for blindness in 50% cases globally. Recent studies reveal that 1.2 % of Africans are blind, and 36% of it is due to cataract
  • Earliest description of cataract surgery has been found in the ‘Sushruta Samhita’ written in 6th century by Sushruta
  • In 1753, Dr. Jacques Daviel is the first surgeon who performed the first extracapsular ccataract extraction
  • Dr. Charles Kelman introduced Phacoemulsification cataract surgery

 

Advantages

  • Surgery has good success rate with 90% patients regaining better vision
  • Surgery is low risk with minimum pain. Severe complications are very rare
  • Recovery time is short
  • Surgery is done after sedation and anesthetic drops
  • Hospitalization not required, patient can resume activity very soon after surgery

 

Disadvantages

  • Additional surgery may be needed in some cases

Risks and Complications

  • Medicine reaction
  • Lens removal incomplete
  • Infection
  • Vision problems

 

Pre-operative preparation

  • Complete eye exam, eye test by ophthalmologist
  • Inform surgeon about previous eye surgery
  • Get list of medicines allowed before surgery
  • Inform surgeon about habits like alcohol and smoking
  • Arranging leave
  • Arranging for caregiver post surgery
  • Medical tourist should stay at confortable hotel

 

Post-operative care

  • Patient might experience foreign body sensation which will disappear soon
  • Patch might be put on the eye and removed day after surgery
  • Patients should wear dark glasses outdoors till eye is healed. Eye drops should be put regularly to have good outcome of the surgery

 

Do’s, Don’ts and Precautions

  • DO wash hands prior to touching eyes
  • Do resume light activity after surgery
  • Don’t rub the eyes
  • Don’t drive without doctor’s permission
  • Don’t put makeup on eyes for 2 weeks
  • Don’t put water or soap in eyes for 7 days
  • Don’t do strenuous work for 10 weeks
  • No hot tub for 6-8 weeks